Food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food protein. They are distinct from other adverse responses to food, such as food intolerance, pharmacological reactions, and toxin-mediated reactions.
Food intolerance or non-allergic food hypersensitivity is a term used widely for varied physiological responses associated with a particular food, or compound found in a range of foods.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but it is not a true food allergy. A true food allergy requires the presence of Immunoglobin E (IgE) antibodies against the food, and a food intolerance does not.
Milk and Egg allergies
European Directive on Food Labelling considers and explicitly mentions cow milk as an allergenic food. Milk allergy is the most common food allergy in early childhood. It affects somewhere between 2% and 3% of infants in developed countries. The prevalence of milk allergy in adults is between 0.1% and 0.5%.
Egg are considered an allergenic food and are the second most common allergy amongst children. The percentage of people allergic to egg represents 1-3 % of the child population, which is why its presence should be indicated in food labels.
- CASEINS: Represent approximately 83% of total proteins contained in cow milk.
- ß- LACTOGLOBULIN: Represents approximately 10% of total proteins contained in cow milk.
- OVALBUMIN: Represent approximately 54% of proteins contained in white egg.
Most common food allergens:
- Tree nuts